Kremers & Urdang’s History of Pharmacy

Kremers & Urdang’s History of Pharmacy

Editor: Glenn Sonnedecker, eds.
Publisher: American Institute of the History of Pharmacy
Year Published: 1976
Pages: 571
ISBN: 0-931292-17-4
Price: $36.00 ($21.60 for members)

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—Temporarily Out Of Print—

Edition: Revised 4th Edition (Print on Demand)
Illustrations: 129

Praise for Kremers and Urdang’s History of Pharmacy:

“This classical text on the history of pharmacy… has retained its position of preeminence through the passing of the years. The fourth edition, revised by Dr. Sonnedecker, has continued the quality of excellence and accuracy that has characterized earlier editions of the volume. The profession of pharmacy should be rightfully proud of its good heritage so well delineated in this volume. The treatise is a challenge for the future of the profession and should be read by everybody associated with drugs in the treatment of disease.” —Bulletin of the History of Medicine

“This book is a ‘must’ not only for pharmacy students, faculty, and libraries but for all in the profession. A deeper appreciation for and pride in pharmacy will be the profit for reading time thus invested.” —Amer. Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

Preface to the 4th Edition:

The evolving fusion of knowledge and responsibility designed to provide safe, effective

drugs and health supplies comprises a significant component of one of man’s most

basic concerns and thus also of his history. An account of this development merits the attention of the general reader, but more particularly this book is intended to give the pharmacy student some additional perspective to guide his reshaping of traditions and improving of the services and the satisfactions which he expects in the profession. The history of pharmaceutical science and technology has the cumulative, progressive quality that characterizes the history of science at large; the history of the pharmaceutical profession shows the character of social history, with its unforeseen regressive turns of events, its conflicts of interests, and their resolution by trends and forces that would elude comprehension solely in terms of science or any other type of endeavor or opinion circumscribed by a given time or group. This sociohistorical view of pharmacy evolving as a profession in the Western world is what we have tried to portray. The materia medica-and the science and technic that transform it-cannot be ignored here, but the serious study of pharmacy’s history from that viewpoint must be left to another occasion and framework. Likewise, there are large areas of the world-both primitive and highly civilized, in remote and more recent time-whose interesting pharmaceutical endeavors had to be ignored in the task of producing a manageable volume focused on the sources of historical growth that seemed most relevant to American pharmacy.

Table of Contents:

Part One: Pharmacy’s Early Antecedents

1. Ancient Prelude



Greece and Rome

Four Roman Medical Authors

2. The Arabs and the European Middle Ages

The Arabs

Transit Ways of Knowledge

Medieval European Pharmacy

Universities Emerge

The Birth of European Professional Pharmacy

Part Two: The Rise of Professional Pharmacy in Representative Countries of Europe

3. Changing Medicaments and the Modern Pharmacist

The Idea of the “Renaissance”

Paracelsus and Chemical Drugs

Iatrochemistry Affects Pharmacy

Drugs from the New World

A Century of Speculative Theories

Homeopathy as an Example of Medical Sectarianism

Background to Modern Pharmacy

Interactions with Pharmacy

4. The Development in Italy

Organization into Guilds

Early Large-Scale Manufacturing

Status in Society

From Guild to Government Rule

Development of Education

Development of a Literature

5. The Development in France

Organization into Guilds

Pharmacists and Spicers

From “Apothicaire” to “Pharmacien”

Pharmacists and Physicians

Organization of French Pharmacy Since 1777

Development of the Pharmacist’s Establishment

Large-Scale Manufacturing

Development of Education

Development of a Literature

Prominent Pharmacists and Science

Hospital and Military Pharmacy

6. The Development in Germany

The Beginnings

Systems of Pharmacy Ownership

Monopoly; Prices; “Drogerien”

Development of Education

Supervision of Pharmacy

Social Standing

Pharmaceutical Literature


7. The Development in Britain

The Peculiar British Situation

Pharmaceutical Beginnings

The Apothecaries-Their Society and Its Laboratory

Chemists-and-Druggists and Their Pharmaceutical Society

Other Organizations

Inspection and Regulation

Social Standing

Pharmaceutical Education

Development of a Literature

Scientific Contributions

Ties Between Dispensing and Production

Concluding Remarks

8. Some International Trends

Trends of International Commerce

International Social Trends

International Professional Trends

Part Three: Pharmacy in the United States

9. The North American Colonies

The Spread of European Civilization

Colonization of North America

Drugs in the New World

Eighteenth Century Pharmacy

Colonial Legislation Related to Pharmacy

Attempted Separation of Pharmacy from Medicine

10. The Revolutionary War

Military Pharmacy in the Revolution

The American Medical Military Establishment

Apothecary-General Andrew Craigie

Military Drug Supplies

The Responsibilities of the Apothecaries

Importance of the Revolution for Pharmacy

11. Young Republic and Pioneer Expansion

Indigenous Materia Medica

The “Thomsonians” and the “Eclectics”


Individual Liberty vs. Professional Responsibility

Beginnings of American Professional Pharmacy

Westward Movement of the Frontier

Section Two The Period of Organized Development

12. The Growth of Associations

Local Organizations

State Organizations

National Organizations

13. The Rise of Legislative Standards

Local Laws

State Pharmacy Laws

Food and Drug Law

Control of Addictive Drugs


14. The Development of Education

Private Schools

State Universities

Consolidation of the School System

Preliminary Education



Home-Study and Short-Course: Substitute or Supplement?

Associations of Schools

American Council on Pharmaceutical Education

The American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education

Pharmaceutical Surveys

15. The Establishment of a Literature

Books Imported from Europe

Attempts to Establish an American Pharmacopeia

The Massachusetts Precursor

Hospital Formularies

The U.S. Pharmacopeia

Revising the Pharmacopeia

The National Formulary


Homeopathic Pharmacopeia

The Pharmaceutical Recipe Book

New and Nonofficial Drugs

Text and Reference Books

Journals of Associations

16. Economic and Structural Development

The Community Pharmacy

Institutional Pharmacy

Wholesale Establishments

Manufacturing Pharmacy

Part Four: Discoveries and Other Contributions to Society by Pharmacists

17. The American Pharmacist in Public Service

The Pharmacist in Civic Life

The Pharmacist in Public Service

The Pharmacist in the Armed Forces

Pharmacists in the Public Health Service

Individual Pharmacists in Governmental Service

Pharmaceutical Emergency Service

18. Contributions by Pharmacists to Science and Industry

General Chemistry

Plant Chemistry

Physiologic Chemistry

Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology





Appendix 1 Representative Drugs of the American Indians

Appendix 2 Founding of State Pharmaceutical Associations, U.S.A.

Appendix 3 Passage of State and Territory Pharmacy Laws, U.S.A

Appendix 4 Schools of Pharmacy in the United States

Appendix 5 Pharmacy’s History-A Growing Awareness

Appendix 6 Pharmaceutical Literature Some Bibliographic Historical Notes

Appendix 7 Glossary

Notes and References


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