AIHP Guidelines on Teaching History in Pharmacy Education

Meeting “Standards 2016” of the  Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education

Developed by the Historical Studies Committee of the American Institute of the History of Pharmacy (AIHP); approved by the AIHP Board of Directors, February 2017 

Read the complete 2016 ACPE Accreditation Standard

History of Pharmacy (From Appendix 1 of the 2016 ACPE Accreditation Standard: Required Elements of the Didactic Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum Social/Administrative/Behavioral Sciences):

Exploration of the evolution of pharmacy as a distinct profession, the transition from a focus on the drug to a focus on the patient and the drug (including pharmacist-provided patient care), and major milestones and contributors in the evolution of pharmacy.

Download a .pdf copy of these AIHP Guidelines on Teaching History in Pharmacy Education


The Goal of the AIHP Guidelines on Teaching History in Pharmacy Education:

To guide and assist the pharmacy academy in the development of pharmacy history education that will meet the 2016 ACPE Accreditation Standard.  It is understood that these guidelines can be met in a number of ways, from a distribution of the material throughout the curriculum to a portion of a single course or a stand-alone course.

Recommended History of Pharmacy Content Coverage:

  1. Introduction to the Study of Pharmacy History
    1. Purpose of learning the history of pharmacy [1]
    2. Prehistoric and ancient Western therapeutics [2]
    3. Non-Western traditional pharmacy and therapeutics (e.g., Ayurveda, Traditional Chinese Medicine, African, Unani, Shamanism) [3]
  2. Evolution of Pharmacy Practice
    1. Separation of pharmacy profession from the medical profession
      1. Concept of pharmacist arises in Medieval Islamic culture [4]
      2. Edict of Frederick II, c. 1240 [5]
    2. Apothecary shop practice in colonial America and the Early Republic [6]
    3. 1700 – 1865: In-shop manufacturer of ingredients and preparations [7]
    4. 1820: 1820: Publication of first Pharmacopeia of the United States demonstrates prescription writing and filling by meeting the need for drug standardization [8]
    5. 1820 – 1940: Pharmacist as compounder of prescriptions/rise of the classic American drugstore [9]
    6. 1920 – 1970: Development and growth of hospital pharmacy specialty[10]
    7. 1930 – 1965: “Count and pour” dispenser and development of the chain drug industry [11]
    8. 1965 – 1990: Clinical pharmacy era and diversification of the profession [12]
    9. 1990 – 2005: Pharmaceutical Care era [13]
    10. 2005 – Present: Medication Therapy Management and provider status [14]
  3. Pharmacy Regulation via State and Federal Governance
    1. State Law Impact on the Profession and Its Practice:
      1. Pre-1870 attempts, primarily poison sales, abortifacient restrictions and discount sales [15]
      2. 1870-1900: The Model Pharmacy Act and enactment of state pharmacy laws [16]
      3. 1900-present: Evolution of the pharmacy board, and pharmacy and pharmacist regulation [17]
    2. Federal Law Impact on the Profession and Its Practice:
      1. 1848-present: Federal efforts concerned for safety in the drug production process and the drugs given to the public [18]
      2. 1914-present: Federal efforts to control addictive and abused substances [19]
      3. 1962-present: Federal efforts to ensure the efficacy of the U.S. drug supply [20]
  4. Pharmacy Education
    1. Prior to 1821: Training through apprenticeship [21]
    2. 1821: The beginnings of institutional pharmacy education [22]
    3. 1862: The Morrill Land Grants College Act stimulates development of state universities [23]
    4. 1867-1899: State board of pharmacy examinations stimulate diverse educational endeavors [24]
    5. 1868: University of Michigan – first science-based state university program [25]
    6. 1907-1932: Development of pharmacy education at the B.S. level [26]
    7. Development of clerkship and residency training [27]
    8. 1960: Establishment of the minimum five-year B.S. degree requirement [28]
    9. 1975-2004: Establishment of the minimum Pharm.D. degree requirement [29]
  5. Growth of the Pharmaceutical Industry
    1. Early seeds of the industry–American Revolution: Andrew Craigie, Apothecary General, established first large-scale pharmaceutical manufacturing in the U.S. [30]
    2. Post-American Revolution: Philadelphia became the center of the fledgling pharmaceutical industry [31]
    3. Mid-19th century: Tensions between community pharmacists and industry regarding compounding [32]
    4. Early manufacturers: Farr & Kunzi (later named Powers & Weightman), Rosengarten & Sons, Merck & Company, Frederick Stearns, William Warner, Edward Squibb, and many others [33]
    5. 1800s: Emergence of patent medicines [34]
    6. Early 20th century: Emergence of research & development within the pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical industry associations [35]
    7. Research developments from academic-industry collaborations [36]
    8. Mid-20th century: Rise of the generic pharmaceutical industry [37]
    9. Late 20th century/early 21st century: Globalization, biotechnology, “blockbuster” drugs, horizontal and vertical integration [38]
  6. Pharmacy Associations
    1. Middle Ages: Pharmacy Guilds form in Europe, and gain governmental recognition and authority [39]
    2. 1617: Society of the Apothecaries of London established with continuing overlap of professional roles in Great Britain and colonial America [40]
    3. 1821: Formation of Philadelphia College of Pharmacy by local pharmacists in response to a perceived threat from the medical college in Philadelphia [41]
    4. 1852: American Pharmaceutical Association established as the first national association with goals of promoting a professional code of ethics and legal standards for drug quality [42]
    5. 1898: National Association of Retail Druggists established as the first sub-specialty association of pharmacists [43]
    6. 1942: Creation of American Society of Hospital Pharmacists as specialty organization for hospital pharmacists [44]
    7. Latter 20th Century and beyond: Creation of multiple specialty national pharmacy associations, some with local counterparts at the state level [45]

References:

  1. Zebroski, Bob. A Brief History of Pharmacy: Humanity’s Search for Wellness. Routledge, 2015, [hereafter, Z], 1-3; Kremers, Edward, and George Urdang. Kremers and Urdang’s history of pharmacy. Amer. Inst. History of Pharmacy, 1986, [hereafter, KU], v-vii, 387-396.
  2. Z, 6-27, 48-61; KU, 3-22
  3. Z, 30-45; Shapiro, Hugh. Medicine across cultures: history and practice of medicine in non-western cultures. Edited by Helaine Selin. Vol. 3. Springer Science & Business Media, 2006, 1-26, 49-60, 385-395.
  4. KU, 23-28; Z, 76-84.
  5. KU, 34-36; Z, 65-73.
  6. KU, 145-162; Z, 112-118.
  7. KU, 181-185, 290-294; Higby, Gregory, and Elaine Stroud. American pharmacy (1852-2002): A collection of historical essays. Amer. Inst. History of Pharmacy, 2005, [hereafter AP], 1-4.
  8. KU, 256-263.
  9. KU, 310-315; AP, 5-8.
  10. KU, 317-322; AP, 9-10; Z, 229-231; Elenbaas, Robert M., and D. B. Worthen. Clinical pharmacy in the United States: transformation of a profession. ACCP Publications, 2010, [hereafter CP], 134-135, 140-141,152-153, 162.
  11. AP, 11-14; KU, 310-315; CP, 5-21, 29-30.
  12. CP, 23-78; Z, 232-236; AP, 12-15.
  13. CP, 147-150, 160-161; AP, 16-17; Z, 236-237; Abood, Richard R. Pharmacy practice and the law. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2017, [hereafter PPL], 306-307.
  14. CP, 164-165, Z, 237; PPL, 324-326.
  15. KU, 213-214; AP, 75-76
  16. KU, 214-219; AP, 76-78.
  17. AP, 79-86.
  18. KU, 219-223; Z, 150-152, 208-213, 215-219; PPL, 42-49.
  19. KU, 223-225; Z, 213-215; PPL, 43-44.
  20. PPL, 44 -49; Z, 219-223.
  21. KU, 226-232; Z, 160-163.
  22. KU, 227-232; AP, 37-41; Z, 163-168.
  23. Z, 168-169.
  24. KU, 244-246; AP, 37-41.
  25. KU, 232-235; Z, 168-170.
  26. AP, 43-47; KU, 235-243; Z, 171-174.
  27. CP, 178-179; Z, 229-233; KU, 320-322.
  28. AP, 49-53; KU, 242-243.
  29. CP, 156-158; AP, 49-53.
  30. KU, 163-166; Z, 118-123.
  31. KU, 326-327; AP, 55; Z, 184-186.
  32. AP, 56-59; KU, 327-331.
  33. KU, 326-335; Z, 185-188.
  34. Z, 136-142.
  35. Z, 188-190; AP, 19-23, 67-73.
  36. Swann, John P. “The evolution of the American pharmaceutical industry.Pharmacy in History 37, no. 2 (1995): 76-86.
  37. Dominique A. Tobbell, “‘Eroding the Physician’s Control of Therapy’:  The Postwar Politics of the Prescription,” in Greene, Jeremy A., and Elizabeth Siegel Watkins. Prescribed: Writing, filling, using, and abusing the prescription in modern America. JHU Press, 2012, 66-90.
  38. Daemmrich, Arthur A., and Mary Ellen Bowden. “A rising drug industry.” Chemical & engineering news 83, no. 25 (2005): 28-42.
  39. KU, 34-36, 56-58, 67-71, 99-100.
  40. KU, 100-107; Z, 114-123.
  41. KU, 189-194; Z, 148-150.
  42. KU, 198-205; Z, 150-153; AP, 87-90.
  43. KU, 205-208; AP, 91-99; Z, 154-156.
  44. KU, 208-209; Z, 156-157; AP, 94-95; CP, 16, 132.
  45. KU, 209-212; AP, 101-108; CP, 72-73.
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