Chemical Pharmacy Enters the University: Johannes Hartmann and the Didactic Care of Chymiatria in the Early Seventeenth Century

Chemical Pharmacy Enters the University: Johannes Hartmann and the Didactic Care of Chymiatria in the Early Seventeenth Century

Author: Bruce Moran
Publisher: American Institute of the History of Pharmacy
Year Published: 1991
Pages: 88
ISBN: (Cloth) 0-931292-24-7
Series: AIHP Monograph Series #14
Price: (Cloth) $16.00 ($10.00 for members)

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Praise for Chemical Pharmacy Enters the University:

“This book is a concise but significant contribution to the history of pharmacy anf to the early history of scientific disciplines. Although it does not fundamentally challenge our understanding of the didactic origins of chemistry… it offers important insights into the nature and significance of the laboratory in early modern science. Historians of early modern culture will also find insights in the skillful manner in which Moran weaves these themes together with that of court patronage.”

-William Eamon, ISIS 84:1 (1993)


The subject of this book is the emergence of an academic discipline called chymiatria (chemical medicine) in the early seventeenth century. The coming into being of that discipline at the German University of Marburg is an important event in the history of pharmacy. Instruction in the preparation of medicine, many of the chemical sort, gained a formal place within the university curriculum for the first time. As an independent subject laying claim to its own intellectual and physical spaces within the university, chemical pharmacy acquired the status at Marburg of an institutionalized study. The first appointed professor of chymiatria was Johannes Hartman (1568-1631) and, as we shall see, it was due to Hartmann that the new disciplines received its ideological identity.

Table of Contents:

1: Introduction

Part One: Chymiatria at Marburg and Its Theoretical Foundations

7: Didactic Pharmacy and the Textbooks of Chemistry in the Seventeenth Century

10: Hartmann’s Career to 1609

17: Hartmann’s Entrance Oration and the Definition of Chymiatria

24: Hartmann’s Vital Philosophy

32: Libavius’s Reponse

Part Two: The Practical Component of Academic Chymiatria

45: The Rules of the Laboratory and the Duties of Teacher and Student

51: Opium and Laudanum Opiatum

57: Laboratory Didactic and the Production of Laudanum Opiatum

62: The Fullness of Instruction: The Aurum Potabile and the Preparation of Purgatives

69: Sympathetic Cures and Remedies Made with Blood

74: Croll’s Basilica Chymica and the Winter Term (1615-1616)

85: Conclusion

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